#1

 

The following definitions are taken from the Basic Catechism by Mary Lea Hill, FSP and Susan Helen Wallace, FSP - published by Pauline Books and Media

 

 

 

1.  Virtue - is a power to do good or a habit of doing good.  The main virtues are the theological (God-centered) virtues and the cardinal (hinge or key) virtues.

 

2.  Cardinal virtues - The cardinal virtues are the key moral virtues:  prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance. The word "cardinal" comes from the Latin word for "hinge". The other moral virtues hinge on these four.

 

3.  Prudence - is the virtue which enables us to think carefully before acting, to make wise choices, and to do things well.

 

4.  Justice - is the virtue which enables us to give God and neighbor their due, thus safeguarding the rights of God and others.

 

5.  Fortitude - is the virtue by which we do what is good and right in spite of any difficulty.

 

6.  Temperance - is the virtue by which we exercise self-control with regard to  the drives of human nature.

 

7.  Other moral virtues are:   religion, patriotism, obedience, truthfulness, liberality, patience, humility, chastity and there are many more.

 

8.  Theological virtues - the theological virtues are faith, hope and love.  God gives them to us so we might direct out whole life to Him.

 

9.  Theological - means that which pertains to God.

 

10.  Faith - is the supernatural virtue by which we believe all that God has revealed and teaches us through the Catholic Church, because He cannot be deceive or be deceived.  By faith we commit ourselves to God.

 

11.  Hope - is the supernatural virtue by which we trust that God will give us eternal life and all we need to obtain it, because He is merciful and faithful to His promises.

 

12.  Love - is the supernatural virtue by which we love God above all, and love all other people as ourselves for the love of God.

 

 

 

#2

 

The following is taken from the text book Catholic Morality by Ronald Wilkins and Mary Gryczka, Brown-Roa Publishers.

 

 

Revisionist Moral Theology – They believe that there are no moral absolutes. That moral absolutes are determined by time and culture. This theory also is akin to the theory of the Fundamental Option. Joseph Feucks

 

Development of Doctrine

 

Old Testament – New Testament Development

 

the change in attitude toward the Sabbath which is made for man.

 

love your neighbor as yourself, do not love yourself above all things.

 

Food – it is not what goes into the mouth but what comes out of the mouth, this is a change in attitude toward the cultic laws.

 

Follow the spirit of the law as opposed to the letter of the law. Can a man be healed on the Sabbath.

 

The Cultic laws

 

they kept God close to you during the day. We don’t have anything that keeps us close to God today. The tendency is to forget about God in our culture and make his worship private.

 

The law could not change the heart, the Mosaic law could change the heart.

 

Moral precepts are superior to the cultic laws. New testament came to add spirit to the law.

 

Law in the Christian Tradition

 

Divine Law – God’s will ordering all things to an end. Living in union with God.

 

Natural Law – rational participation in the divine. A person should be able to arrive to the knowledge of the ten commandments just by use of reason. Romans 10

 

Civil Law – the positive law which is rooted in the natural law. Some areas of the country are different from others.

 

Canonical Law – Church law that is different from others.

 

Old law – pertaining to the old testament

 

New law – pertaining to the new testament.

 

Covenants that God has made with Man.

 

Covenant of Creation – Go forth and multiple and have dominion over the earth

Covenant with Noah – I will not destroy man again.

Covenant with Abraham - I will give you a nation and a people.

Covenant with Moses – The Ten Commandments – moral precepts to be followed.

Covenant with David – I will send you a king who will be a Messiah

Covenant with Jesus – Restores creation to God. The new sacrifice of Jesus makes us acceptable and pleasing to God.

 

 

Old Testament Theology – Book of Genesis

 

The book of Genesis should be understood in a symbolic language.

 

Source Criticism – priestly tradition is responsible for the 1st story

 

J tradition is responsible for the 2nd story.

 

Comparison of Creation Stories.

 

First Story – god is all knowing and rationally creates the world. The person is created in the image of God and is the climax of creation. The world is good, separate, has a beginning and an end.

 

Second Creation – God is a creator who acts lovingly Man was created in a personal manner and has a personal relationship with God. Man was meant for God. The world is good and orderly.

 

The Fall – God is all knowing. He creates man with freedom to choose. Man is capable of sin and does sin. The world is not correct and out of balance once sin has entered into the fray. Man is alienated from God, from neighbor, world and self

 

 

Review of Genesis

 

There is only one God as opposed to other cultures in that time and that God was separate from creation as opposed to Pantheism Creatio ex Nihilo

 

Human Person in Genesis

 

created in God’s image

man has domination over all things

man is free

man lives in a community of persons.

Tree of Knowledge – man cannot be God but must adhere to his will.

Literal translation – should be understood as a symbolic story. Myth is not appropriate because there is truth behind the spiritual message of Genesis.

 

 

Faith – What is it?

 

Faith is steadfastness of life. Hamed ested?

 

Faith is an act of the intellect whereas hope is an act of the will. Faith and hope are intertwined.

 

Faith is part of ordinary life. The natural faith that we put in people in our ordinary life is analogous to the faith that we have in God. If we can trust our neighbors witness even though they are human, shouldn’t it be easier to trust God as a witness?

 

That understood, now the question is where do we know God in order to be able to trust his witness? His witness is found in revelation. That revelation is transferred down through the ages of the Church.

 

Scripture, magisterium and tradition are the three elements of God’s witness. The truth of the magisterium is conditioned by the times. The credibility of the Church is found in that it has erred so infrequently and the holiness of its members

 

Jesus is the model of Faith

 

he was the fulfillment of the old Testament

he performed miracles

he died and arose from the dead.

He lived his teachings.

He emptied himself and became a man, experienced abandonment. He is the model of faith.

.Deposit of Faith

 

There are four levels of the deposit of faith. Some of these levels are more clearly defined then others and require a strict adherence in belief

 

Level 1 Defined Doctrine – Incarnation, Trinity, Resurrection

 

Level 2 Implicit Doctrine – Immaculate Conception. This doctrine is implied in the first. If you deny the second, you deny the first

 

Level 3 Probably Doctrine – They are not defined but they are probably correct. They are part of the ordinary teaching and should be followed unless for grave reason or arguments against (according to Ashley). Councils, Encyclicals, Pastoral letters.

 

Level 4 Non Defined Doctrine – doctrine that is not defined as of yet and people are able to make their own informed decisions. (Bioethics)

 

Doctrine is defined ex cathedra, or from the chair. This has rarely been done.

 

Most of the doctrine is part of what is called the ordinary magisterium. Ecumenical councils, Popes and Bishops teaching on the word of God and the sensum Fidelium. Pope, Bishops and People agree on a doctrine.

 

Living Wisely

 

Practical Moral Wisdom or Prudence

 

we must live out what we believe.

prudence is the virtue that tells us what good we must do.

prudence revolves around the major issues of life, reproduction, society and truth. Aquinas.

Prudence guides us toward the Kingdom of God on earth.

Conscience – rational judgment of what I ought to do to achieve good.

 

Four steps of Conscience

 

aware of a conflict of competing goods.

Look at experience in the past

Seek expert advice

Make a rational judgment

We act in favor or against our conscience.

Three levels of Conscience

 

concrete specific conscience

habitual decisions of the conscience to do good- symderisis

transcendent – the existential conscience.

 

 

Review

 

Kenosis – means an emptying of one’s self. It is not only an emptying but a filling with God in faith.

 

Baptism and Faith Effects of Baptism

 

union with Christ

cleansed of sin, both personal and original. In the early church people waited when they were about to die to get baptized so their sins would be forgiven.

Because of this the Church developed the sacrament of reconciliation over the ages.

Participate in the life of the trinity

Become members of the Mystical body of Christ

Develop a new way of life. By Baptism we repeat the life of Christ

Faith and Works

 

Are works essential? We can’t have only faith or just works we must have a combination of both.

 

Quietism – its all God’s work. All I have to do is to believe – human works fail when there is no God.

 

We should act as if everything depends on yourself and believe it all depends on God.

 

Pelagianism – we are saved only by works. God and not by grace. We save ourselves through this model. Refuted by St. Augustine.

 

Fundamental Option theory

 

Developed in response to Humanae Vitae, Joselph Fuchs

 

There is a core commitment that we make to God which determines our salvation. Individual acts may be a deviation but do not destroy this core commitment. The decision of an individual on the level of his transcendental freedom is what makes a person good or evil.

 

This was refuted by JP II in Veritatis Splendor. Individual Acts may determine our fundamental core commitment and may destroy our relation with God.

 

 

 

Proportionate Reason

 

a there are not such things as moral absolutes. Morality depends upon the circumstances. To cut a person is wrong, however if a doctor is cutting you for a medical reason it is the lesser of two evils.

 

b there is already an expression of a personal judgment before the moral issues are weighed.

 

actions carry with them an attitude that is real. The action itself brings with it an attitude.

The proportionate good is more important than the lesser evil

Example of the lady who gets out of a nazi concentration camp by getting pregnant, committing adultery. Is this the lesser of two evils.

The problem is that goodness becomes very subjective and there are no moral absolutes.

Double Effect

 

It is never necessary to do evil so as to promote a good.

 

Whatever I do there is something evil In these cases a person should want the good directly and only allow the evil to happen indirectly.

 

Material Cooperation in Evil

 

In these cases a person should intend to do what is good and never give material support to the evil.

 

The greater the evil the lesser the support you should have for it.

 

 

 

Hope

 

In Scripture – by remembering what happened to the Israelites a person can determine what the different aspects of hope have been developed in the Old testament.

 

732 BC Northern Kingdom Fell

 

586 BC Babylonian exile – hope was in the establishment of a temporal Kingdom of God.

 

333 BC Alexander the Great – Hellenization of the Jews led to the development of the apocalyptic literature.

 

God allowed the people of Israel to loose their kingdom because they did not follow his ways.

 

 

Narrative Patterns in the Old Testament

 

Equilibrium is found in grace

 

Disequilibria is found in sin.

 

New Equilibrium is found in grace or Jesus Christ

 

Beyond Christ there is no answer.

 

This new equilibrium is found in the Kingdom of God

 

The Kingdom of God has had various interpretations.

 

militant understanding – this was the understanding of the Jews in the time of Christ.

Suffering servant – the Messiah would be a suffering one

Apocalyptic Messiah – many examples of this in the 20th century. Apocalyptic groups do not associate themselves with the world and feel that it is evil and not to be changed.

Catholics try to keep the middle ground of waiting for the Messiah yet working for a better world.

 

The Time of the Church is from the time of christ to the end of the world. We are now living in the time of the Church.

 

Matt:12:31 Sin against the Holy Spirit is the sin against hope. Then you cannot even begin to believe in God’s help.

 

The Kingdom of God is the foundation for temperance and God’s grace builds upon our mistakes. God’s grace gives us the fortitude to move beyond human measure. Protestantism believes that nature is so corrupt that it cannot be transformed by grace, like snow on a dunghill, Catholicism believes that the snow is on fertile ground.

 

Temperance – Integration of the drives for self-preservation with the great commandment to love God above all things.

 

Drives can destroy us or take away our freedom. They should be channeled to their proper purposes.

 

Temperance is an ability, to be more is to love more as opposed to having more.

 

To be free is to be in control of the appetites. Slavery to the passions is a loss of freedom.

 

Check out Romans 6:1-12 Romans 8:1-13

 

Terms dealing with Temperance

 

Body – soma – body and soul are laced together as one.

 

Flesh – sarx – tendency toward sin or death

 

Spirit =- pneuma – the spiritual side of man.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The following are some of the virtues which are often misunderstood.

 

 

 

Piety - It is acting toward God in a manner worthy of God.

 

Meekness - patience under injury or insult.  It is mildness of temper and forbearance during attacks on one's self, one's diginity, or one's integrity.  It is not fear or cowardice; it is control in moments of stress brought on by others.

 

Humility - the recognition of one's true worth, including one's limitations and weakness.  It is the recognition of one's place in relation to others and the expression of that place in word and action.  It is simply not putting oneself froward, boasting, looking fro recognition or honor, or seeking honors or power for oneself.  It is honesty about oneself.

 

Forgiveness - a virtue which leads us to pardon others easily and readily without resentment or reserve.  It is generally prompted by the recognition of the worth and dignity of others, the acceptance of their weaknesses, and the desire for reconciliation and peace.

 

Modesty - observing proprieties in speech, dress, and behavior, especially with regard to sex.  It is the opposite of being showy or boastful.  It is a quiet reserve based on what it means to be truely human.  It is a virtue which expresses our personal confidence in ourselves based on an inner sense of worth and dignity.  It is not prudishness or shame.  It is humility in word and action.

 

Virginity - a state or way of life in whcih sexual abstinence is a total commitment.  It is a condition or way of life prior to or without sexual expression.  It is a freely chosen withholding of sexual intimacy for reasons based on the nature and meaning of sexual intercourse, the dignity and worth of human sexual life, and the meaning and purpose of marriage.  It is not based on fear of human sexual intimacy, fear of pregnancy, fear of discovery, shame or ignorance.  Virginity is both an attitude of heart and the practice of sexual abstinence.

 

Chastity - a virtue which directs our sexual behavior in and out of marriage.  Within marriage, it is the direction of our sexual actions to thier proper end, in which case properly motivated mutual sexual action is an act of virtue.  Outside of marriage, it is the virtue which directs the control of our sexual drives in the form of sexual abstinence and leads us to a respect for the sexual drives of others.

 

Self-respect - a virtue that, stemming from a good self-image, prevents a person from doing "borderline" things in dress, action, and language which are not in keeping with good taste.  It directs a person to be polite, courteous, and considerate of others in language and action, not simply to be well thought of, but because such actions are right and proper in themselves.

 

Questions

 

1.  Do you think that the virtues in this list are "misunderstood virtues"? Explain

 

2.  Why are they described as misunderstood?

 

3.  What did you learn from this list of virtues?

 

 

 

following definitions are taken from the Basic Catechism by Mary Lea Hill, FSP and Susan Helen Wallace, FSP - published by Pauline Books and Media

 

 

 

1.  Virtue - is a power to do good or a habit of doing good.  The main virtues are the theological (God-centered) virtues and the cardinal (hinge or key) virtues.

 

2.  Cardinal virtues - The cardinal virtues are the key moral virtues:  prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance. The word "cardinal" comes from the Latin word for "hinge". The other moral virtues hinge on these four.

 

3.  Prudence - is the virtue which enables us to think carefully before acting, to make wise choices, and to do things well.

 

4.  Justice - is the virtue which enables us to give God and neighbor their due, thus safeguarding the rights of God and others.

 

5.  Fortitude - is the virtue by which we do what is good and right in spite of any difficulty.

 

6.  Temperance - is the virtue by which we exercise self-control with regard to  the drives of human nature.

 

7.  Other moral virtues are:   religion, patriotism, obedience, truthfulness, liberality, patience, humility, chastity and there are many more.

 

8.  Theological virtues - the theological virtues are faith, hope and love.  God gives them to us so we might direct out whole life to Him.

 

9.  Theological - means that which pertains to God.

 

10.  Faith - is the supernatural virtue by which we believe all that God has revealed and teaches us through the Catholic Church, because He cannot be deceive or be deceived.  By faith we commit ourselves to God.

 

11.  Hope - is the supernatural virtue by which we trust that God will give us eternal life and all we need to obtain it, because He is merciful and faithful to His promises.

 

12.  Love - is the supernatural virtue by which we love God above all, and love all other people as ourselves for the love of God.

 

 

 

#2

 

The following is taken from the text book Catholic Morality by Ronald Wilkins and Mary Gryczka, Brown-Roa Publishers.

 

 

 

The following are some of the virtues which are often misunderstood.

 

 

 

Piety - It is acting toward God in a manner worthy of God.

 

Meekness - patience under injury or insult.  It is mildness of temper and forbearance during attacks on one's self, one's diginity, or one's integrity.  It is not fear or cowardice; it is control in moments of stress brought on by others.

 

Humility - the recognition of one's true worth, including one's limitations and weakness.  It is the recognition of one's place in relation to others and the expression of that place in word and action.  It is simply not putting oneself froward, boasting, looking fro recognition or honor, or seeking honors or power for oneself.  It is honesty about oneself.

 

Forgiveness - a virtue which leads us to pardon others easily and readily without resentment or reserve.  It is generally prompted by the recognition of the worth and dignity of others, the acceptance of their weaknesses, and the desire for reconciliation and peace.

 

Modesty - observing proprieties in speech, dress, and behavior, especially with regard to sex.  It is the opposite of being showy or boastful.  It is a quiet reserve based on what it means to be truely human.  It is a virtue which expresses our personal confidence in ourselves based on an inner sense of worth and dignity.  It is not prudishness or shame.  It is humility in word and action.

 

Virginity - a state or way of life in whcih sexual abstinence is a total commitment.  It is a condition or way of life prior to or without sexual expression.  It is a freely chosen withholding of sexual intimacy for reasons based on the nature and meaning of sexual intercourse, the dignity and worth of human sexual life, and the meaning and purpose of marriage.  It is not based on fear of human sexual intimacy, fear of pregnancy, fear of discovery, shame or ignorance.  Virginity is both an attitude of heart and the practice of sexual abstinence.

 

Chastity - a virtue which directs our sexual behavior in and out of marriage.  Within marriage, it is the direction of our sexual actions to thier proper end, in which case properly motivated mutual sexual action is an act of virtue.  Outside of marriage, it is the virtue which directs the control of our sexual drives in the form of sexual abstinence and leads us to a respect for the sexual drives of others.

 

Self-respect - a virtue that, stemming from a good self-image, prevents a person from doing "borderline" things in dress, action, and language which are not in keeping with good taste.  It directs a person to be polite, courteous, and considerate of others in language and action, not simply to be well thought of, but because such actions are right and proper in themselves.

 

Questions

 

1.  Do you think that the virtues in this list are "misunderstood virtues"? Explain

 

2.  Why are they described as misunderstood?

 

3.  What did you learn from this list of virtues?

 

 

Class_Notes